Posted by Fr Nelson Madathikandam MCBS on February 14, 2014
Posted by Fr Nelson Madathikandam MCBS on February 14, 2014
Jesus taught the adults and blessed the children, but the Church has gotten it backwards. That was not the case in the early days of the Church. The section of Matthew’s Gospel that we call “The Sermon on the Mount” was intended by Matthew as a sort of catechism for adults.
Sixth Sunday of the Year (A)
17 ‘Do not imagine that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets. I have come not to abolish but to complete them.
18 In truth I tell you, till heaven and earth disappear, not one dot, not one little stroke, is to disappear from the Law until all its purpose is achieved.
19 Therefore, anyone who infringes even one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be considered the least in the kingdom of Heaven; but the person who keeps them and teaches them will be considered great in the kingdom of Heaven.
20 ‘For I tell you, if your uprightness does not surpass that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never get into the kingdom of Heaven.
21 ‘You have heard how it was said to our ancestors, You shall not kill; and if anyone does kill he must answer for it before the court.
22 But I say this to you, anyone who is angry with a brother will answer for it before the court; anyone who calls a brother “Fool” will answer for it before the
Posted by Fr Nelson Madathikandam MCBS on February 14, 2014
Saint Valentine’s Day, also known as Valentine’s Day or the Feast of Saint Valentine, is observed on February 14 each year. It is celebrated in many countries around the world, although it is not a holiday in most of them.
St. Valentine’s Day began as a liturgical celebration of one or more early Christian saints named Valentinus. Several martyrdom stories were invented for the various Valentines that belonged to February 14, and added to later martyrologies. A popular hagiographical account of Saint Valentine of Rome states that he was imprisoned for performing weddings for soldiers who were forbidden to marry and for ministering to Christians, who were persecuted under the Roman Empire. According to legend, during his imprisonment, he healed the daughter of his jailer, Asterius. An embellishment to this story states that before his execution he wrote her a letter signed “Your Valentine” as a farewell. Today, Saint Valentine’s Day is an official feast day in the Anglican Communion, as well as in the Lutheran Church. The Eastern Orthodox Church also celebrates Saint Valentine’s Day, albeit on July 6 and July 30, the former date in honor of the Roman presbyter Saint Valentine, and the latter date in honor of Hieromartyr Valentine, the Bishop of Interamna (modern Terni). In Brazil, the Dia de São Valentim is recognized on June 12.
The day was first associated with romantic love in the circle of Geoffrey Chaucer in the High Middle Ages, when the tradition of courtly love flourished. In 18th-century England, it evolved into an occasion in which lovers expressed their love for each other by presenting flowers, offering confectionery, and sending greeting cards (known as “valentines“). Valentine’s Day symbols that are used today include the heart-shaped outline, doves, and the figure of the winged Cupid. Since the 19th century, handwritten valentines have given way to mass-produced greeting cards.
- 1 Saint Valentine
- 2 Folk traditions
- 3 Connection with romantic love
- 4 Celebration worldwide
- 5 Conflict with Islamic countries and political parties
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Numerous early Christian martyrs were named Valentine. The Valentines honored on February 14 are Valentine of Rome (Valentinus presb. m. Romae) and Valentine of Terni (Valentinus ep. Interamnensis m. Romae). Valentine of Rome was a priest in Rome who was martyred about AD 496 and was buried on the Via Flaminia. The relics of Saint Valentine were kept in the Church and Catacombs of San Valentino in Rome, which “remained an important pilgrim site throughout the Middle Ages until the relics of St. Valentine were transferred to the church of Santa Prassede during the pontificate of Nicholas IV“. The flower-crowned skull of Saint Valentine is exhibited in the Basilica of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome. Other relics are found at Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, Ireland. Valentine of Terni became bishop of Interamna (modern Terni) about AD 197 and is said to have been martyred during the persecution under Emperor Aurelian. He is also buried on the Via Flaminia, but in a different location than Valentine of Rome. His relics are at the Basilica of Saint Valentine in Terni (Basilica di San Valentino). Jack B. Oruch states that “abstracts of the acts of the two saints were in nearly every church and monastery of Europe.” The Catholic Encyclopedia also speaks of a third saint named Valentine who was mentioned in early martyrologies under date of February 14. He was martyred in Africa with a number of companions, but nothing more is known about him. Saint Valentine’s head was preserved in the abbey of New Minster, Winchester, and venerated.
February 14 is celebrated as St. Valentine’s Day in various Christian denominations; it has, for example, the rank of ‘commemoration’ in the calendar of saints in the Anglican Communion. In addition, the feast day of Saint Valentine is also given in the calendar of saints of the Lutheran Church. However, in the 1969 revision of the Roman Catholic Calendar of Saints, the feast day of Saint Valentine on February 14 was removed from the General Roman Calendar and relegated to particular (local or even national) calendars for the following reason: “Though the memorial of Saint Valentine is ancient, it is left to particular calendars, since, apart from his name, nothing is known of Saint Valentine except that he was buried on the Via Flaminia on February 14.” The feast day is still celebrated in Balzan (Malta) where relics of the saint are claimed to be found, and also throughout the world by Traditionalist Catholics who follow the older, pre-Second Vatican Council calendar. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, St. Valentine’s Day is celebrated on July 6, in which Saint Valentine, the Roman presbyter, is honoured; furthermore, the Eastern Orthodox Church obsesrves the feast of Hieromartyr Valentine, Bishop of Interamna, on July 30.
J.C. Cooper, in The Dictionary of Christianity, writes that Saint Valentine was “a priest of Rome who was imprisoned for succouring persecuted Christians.” Contemporary records of Saint Valentine were most probably destroyed during this Diocletianic Persecution in the early 4th century. In the 5th or 6th century, a work called Passio Marii et Marthae published a story of martyrdom for Saint Valentine of Rome, perhaps by borrowing tortures that happened to other saints, as was usual in the literature of that period. The same events are also found in Bede’s Martyrology, which was compiled in the 8th century. It states that Saint Valentine was persecuted as a Christian and interrogated by Roman Emperor Claudius II in person. Claudius was impressed by Valentine and had a discussion with him, attempting to get him to convert to Roman paganism in order to save his life. Valentine refused and tried to convert Claudius to Christianity instead. Because of this, he was executed. Before his execution, he is reported to have performed a miracle by healing Julia, the blind daughter of his jailer Asterius. The jailer’s daughter and his forty-four member household (family members and servants) came to believe in Jesus and were baptized. A later Passio repeated the legend, adding that Pope Julius I built a church over his sepulcre (it is a confusion with a 4th-century tribune called Valentino who donated land to build a church at a time when Julius was a Pope). The legend was picked up as fact by later martyrologies, starting by Bede‘s martyrology in the 8th century. It was repeated in the 13th century, in Legenda Aurea. The book expounded briefly the Early Medieval acta of several Saint Valentines, and this legend was assigned to the Valentine under February 14.
There is an additional embellishment to The Golden Legend, which according to Henry Ansgar Kelly, was added centuries later, and widely repeated. On the evening before Valentine was to be executed, he would have written the first “valentine” card himself, addressed to the daughter of his jailer Asterius, who was no longer blind, signing as “Your Valentine.” The expression “From your Valentine” was later adopted by modern Valentine letters. This legend has been published by both American Greetings and The History Channel.
John Foxe, an English historian, as well as the Order of Carmelites, state that Saint Valentine was buried in the Church of Praxedes in Rome, located near the cemetery of Saint Hippolytus. This order says that according to legend, “Julia herself planted a pink-blossomed almond tree near his grave. Today, the almond tree remains a symbol of abiding love and friendship.”
Anther embellishment is that Saint Valentine would have performed clandestine Christian weddings for soldiers who were forbidden to marry. The Roman Emperor Claudius II supposedly forbade this in order to grow his army, believing that married men did not make for good soldiers. However, this supposed marriage ban was never issued, and in fact Claudius II told his soldiers to take two or three women for themselves after his victory over the Goths.
According to legend, in order “to remind these men of their vows and God’s love, Saint Valentine is said to have cut hearts from parchment”, giving them to these soldiers and persecuted Christians, a possible origin of the widespread use of hearts on St. Valentine’s Day.
Saint Valentine supposedly wore a purple amethyst ring, customarily worn on the hands of Christian bishops with an image of Cupid engraved in it, a recognizable symbol associated with love that was legal under the Roman Empire; Roman soldiers would recognize the ring and ask him to perform marriage for them. Probably because of the association with Saint Valentine, amethyst has become the birthstone of February, and its thought to attract love.
While the European folk traditions connected with Saint Valentine and St. Valentine’s Day have become marginalized by the modern Anglo-American customs connecting the day with romantic love, there are some remaining associations connecting the saint with the advent of spring.
While the custom of sending cards, flowers, chocolates and other gifts originated in the UK, Valentine’s Day still remains connected with various regional customs in England. In Norfolk, a character called ‘Jack’ Valentine knocks on the rear door of houses leaving sweets and presents for children. Although he was leaving treats, many children were scared of this mystical person.
In Slovenia, Saint Valentine or Zdravko was one of the saints of spring, the saint of good health and the patron of beekeepers and pilgrims. A proverb says that “Saint Valentine brings the keys of roots”. Plants and flowers start to grow on this day. It has been celebrated as the day when the first work in the vineyards and in the fields commences. It is also said that birds propose to each other or marry on that day. Another proverb says “Valentin – prvi spomladin” (“Valentine — the first spring saint”), as in some places (especially White Carniola), Saint Valentine marks the beginning of spring. Valentine’s Day has only recently been celebrated as the day of love. The day of love was traditionally March 12, the Saint Gregory‘s day, or February 22, Saint Vincent’s Day. The patron of love was Saint Anthony, whose day has been celebrated on June 13.
Connection with romantic love
There is no evidence of any link between St. Valentine’s Day and the rites of the ancient Roman festival, despite many claims by many authors.[notes 1] The celebration of Saint Valentine did not have any romantic connotations until Chaucer‘s poetry about “Valentines” in the 14th century.
Popular modern sources claim links to unspecified Greco-Roman February holidays alleged to be devoted to fertility and love to St. Valentine’s Day, but prior to Chaucer in the 14th century, there were no links between the Saints named Valentinus and romantic love. Earlier links as described above were focused on sacrifice rather than romantic love. In the ancient Athenian calendar the period between mid-January and mid-February was the month of Gamelion, dedicated to the sacred marriage of Zeus and Hera.
In Ancient Rome, Lupercalia, observed February 13–15, was an archaic rite connected to fertility. Lupercalia was a festival local to the city of Rome. The more general Festival of Juno Februa, meaning “Juno the purifier “or “the chaste Juno”, was celebrated on February 13–14. Pope Gelasius I (492–496) abolished Lupercalia. Some researchers have theorized that Gelasius I replaced Lupercalia with the celebration of the Purification of Mary in February 14 and claim a connection to the 14th century’s connotations of romantic love, but there is no historical indication that he ever intended such a thing.[notes 2] Also, the dates don’t fit because at the time of Gelasius I the feast was only celebrated in Jerusalem, and it was on February 14 only because Jerusalem placed the Nativity on January 6.[notes 3] Although it was called “Purification of Mary”, it dealt mainly with the presentation of Jesus at the temple. The Jerusalem’s Purification of Mary on February 14 became the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple on February 2 as it was introduced to Rome and other places in the sixth century, after Gelasius I’s time.
Alban Butler in his Lifes of the Principal Saints (1756–1759) claimed without proof that men and women in Lupercalia drew names from a jar to make couples, and that modern Valentine’s letters originated from this custom. In reality, this practice originated in the Middle Ages, with no link to Lupercalia, with men drawing the names of girls at random to couple with them. This custom was combated by priests, for example by Frances de Sales around 1600, apparently by replacing it with a religious custom of girls drawing the names of apostles from the altar. However, this religious custom is recorded as soon as the 13th century in the life of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, so it could have a different origin.
Chaucer’s love birds
For this was on seynt Volantynys day
Whan euery bryd comyth there to chese his make.
["For this was on St. Valentine's Day, when every bird cometh there to choose his mate."]
This poem was written to honor the first anniversary of the engagement of King Richard II of England to Anne of Bohemia. A treaty providing for a marriage was signed on May 2, 1381. (When they were married eight months later, they were each only 15 years old).
Readers have uncritically assumed that Chaucer was referring to February 14 as Valentine’s Day; however, mid-February is an unlikely time for birds to be mating in England. Henry Ansgar Kelly has pointed out that Chaucer could be referring to May 3, the celebration in the liturgical calendar of Valentine of Genoa, an early bishop of Genoa who died around AD 307. Jack B. Oruch says that date for the start of Spring has changed since Chaucer’s time because of the precession of equinoxes and the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in 1582. The date would correspond to the modern 23 February, a time when some birds have started mating and nesting in England.
Chaucer’s Parliament of Foules is set in a fictional context of an old tradition, but in fact there was no such tradition before Chaucer. The speculative explanation of sentimental customs, posing as historical fact, had their origins among 18th-century antiquaries, notably Alban Butler, the author of Butler’s Lives of Saints, and have been perpetuated even by respectable modern scholars. Most notably, “the idea that Valentine’s Day customs perpetuated those of the Roman Lupercalia has been accepted uncritically and repeated, in various forms, up to the present”.
There were three other authors who made poems about birds mating in St. Valentine’s Day around the same years: Otton de Grandson from Savoy, John Gower from England, and a knight called Pardo from Valencia. Chaucer most probably predated all of them, but, due to the difficulty of dating medieval works, we can’t know for sure who of the four had the idea first and influenced the others.
Medieval period and the English Renaissance
Using the language of the law courts for the rituals of courtly love, a “High Court of Love” was probably established by princess Isabel of Bavaria in Paris in 1400. It was founded on 6 January, the festivity of a Bavarian Saint Valentin, with The Charter of the Court of Love. The court dealt with love contracts, betrayals, and violence against women. Judges were selected by women on the basis of a poetry reading. It was probably based on the poems of Grandson, and not on the poems of Chaucer. It is possible that the actual Court never existed and that it was all an invention of the princess.
Je suis desja d’amour tanné
Ma tres doulce Valentinée…—Charles d’Orléans, Rondeau VI, lines 1–2
Valentine’s Day is mentioned ruefully by Ophelia in Hamlet (1600–1601):
To-morrow is Saint Valentine’s day,
All in the morning betime,
And I a maid at your window,
To be your Valentine.
Then up he rose, and donn’d his clothes,
And dupp’d the chamber-door;
Let in the maid, that out a maid
Never departed more.—William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act IV, Scene 5
John Donne used the legend of the marriage of the birds as the starting point for his epithalamion celebrating the marriage of Elizabeth, daughter of James I of England, and Frederick V, Elector Palatine, on Valentine’s Day:
Hayle Bishop Valentine whose day this is
All the Ayre is thy Diocese
And all the chirping Queristers
And other birds ar thy parishioners
Thou marryest every yeare
The Lyrick Lark, and the graue whispering Doue,
The Sparrow that neglects his life for loue,
The houshold bird with the redd stomacher
Thou makst the Blackbird speede as soone,
As doth the Goldfinch, or the Halcyon
The Husband Cock lookes out and soone is spedd
And meets his wife, which brings her feather-bed.
This day more cheerfully than ever shine
This day which might inflame thy selfe old Valentine.—John Donne, Epithalamion Vpon Frederick Count Palatine and the Lady Elizabeth marryed on St. Valentines day
She bath’d with roses red, and violets blew,
And all the sweetest flowres, that in the forrest grew.
The modern cliché Valentine’s Day poem can be found in the collection of English nursery rhymes Gammer Gurton’s Garland (1784):
The rose is red, the violet’s blue,
The honey’s sweet, and so are you.
Thou art my love and I am thine;
I drew thee to my Valentine:
The lot was cast and then I drew,
In 1797, a British publisher issued The Young Man’s Valentine Writer, which contained scores of suggested sentimental verses for the young lover unable to compose his own. Printers had already begun producing a limited number of cards with verses and sketches, called “mechanical valentines,” and a reduction in postal rates in the next century ushered in the less personal but easier practice of mailing Valentines. That, in turn, made it possible for the first time to exchange cards anonymously, which is taken as the reason for the sudden appearance of racy verse in an era otherwise prudishly Victorian.
Paper Valentines became so popular in England in the early 19th century that they were assembled in factories. Fancy Valentines were made with real lace and ribbons, with paper lace introduced in the mid-19th century. In 1835, 60,000 Valentine cards were sent by post in Britain, despite postage being expensive. Laura Seddon Greeting Card Collection from the Manchester Metropolitan University gathers 450 Valentine’s Day cards dating from the early nineteenth century, printed by the major publishers of the day. The collection is cataloged in Laura Seddon’s book Victorian Valentines (1996).
In the United States, the first mass-produced valentines of embossed paper lace were produced and sold shortly after 1847 by Esther Howland (1828–1904) of Worcester, Massachusetts. Her father operated a large book and stationery store, but Howland took her inspiration from an English Valentine she had received from a business associate of her father. Intrigued with the idea of making similar Valentines, Howland began her business by importing paper lace and floral decorations from England. A writer in Graham’s American Monthly observed in 1849, “Saint Valentine’s Day … is becoming, nay it has become, a national holyday.” The English practice of sending Valentine’s cards was established enough to feature as a plot device in Elizabeth Gaskell‘s Mr. Harrison’s Confessions (1851): “I burst in with my explanations: ‘The valentine I know nothing about.’ ‘It is in your handwriting’, said he coldly.” Since 2001, the Greeting Card Association has been giving an annual “Esther Howland Award for a Greeting Card Visionary”.
Since the 19th century, handwritten notes have given way to mass-produced greeting cards. In the UK, just under half of the population spend money on their Valentines and around 1.3 billion pounds are spent yearly on cards, flowers, chocolates and other gifts, with an estimated 25 million cards being sent. The mid-19th century Valentine’s Day trade was a harbinger of further commercialized holidays in the United States to follow.
In the second half of the 20th century, the practice of exchanging cards was extended to all manner of gifts. Such gifts typically include roses and chocolates packed in a red satin, heart-shaped box. In the 1980s, the diamond industry began to promote Valentine’s Day as an occasion for giving jewelry.
The U.S. Greeting Card Association estimates that approximately 190 million valentines are sent each year in the US. Half of those valentines are given to family members other than husband or wife, usually to children. When you include the valentine-exchange cards made in school activities the figure goes up to 1 billion, and teachers become the people receiving the most valentines.
The rise of Internet popularity at the turn of the millennium is creating new traditions. Millions of people use, every year, digital means of creating and sending Valentine’s Day greeting messages such as e-cards, love coupons or printable greeting cards. An estimated 15 million e-valentines were sent in 2010. Valentine’s Day is considered by some to be a Hallmark holiday due to its commercialization.
Antique and vintage Valentine cards, 1850–1950
- Valentines of the mid-19th and early 20th centuries
Valentine card, 1862: “My dearest Miss, I send thee a kiss” addressed to Miss Jenny Lane of Crostwight Hall, Smallburgh, Norfolk.
Vinegar Valentine, circa 1900
- Postcards, “pop-ups”, and mechanical Valentines, circa 1900–1930
Advertisement for Prang’s greeting cards, 1883
- Children’s Valentines
Valentine’s Day customs developed in early modern England and spread throughout the Anglosphere in the 19th century.
In the later 20th and early 21st centuries, these customs have also spread to other countries along with other aspects of American pop culture, but its impact so far has been rather more limited than that of Halloween, or that of US pop-culture inspired aspects of Christmas (such as Santa Claus).
In China, the common situation is the man gives chocolate, flowers or both to the woman that he loves. In Chinese, Valentine’s Day is called lovers’ festival (simplified Chinese: 情人节; traditional Chinese: 情人節; pinyin: qíng rén jié). The so-called “Chinese Valentine’s Day” is the Qixi Festival, celebrated on the seventh day of the seventh month of the lunar calendar. It commemorates a day on which a legendary cowherder and weaving maid are allowed to be together. Valentine’s Day on February 14 is not celebrated because it is often too close to the Chinese New Year, which usually falls on either January or February. In Chinese culture, there is an older observance related to lovers, called “The Night of Sevens” (Chinese: 七夕; pinyin: Qi Xi). According to the legend, the Cowherd star and the Weaver Maid star are normally separated by the Milky Way (silvery river) but are allowed to meet by crossing it on the 7th day of the 7th month of the Chinese calendar.
In recent years, celebrating White Day has also become fashionable among some young people.
Finland and Estonia
In Finland Valentine’s Day is called Ystävänpäivä which translates into “Friend’s Day”. As the name indicates, this day is more about remembering all your friends, not only your loved ones. In Estonia Valentine’s Day is called sõbrapäev, which has the same meaning.
St. Valentine’s Day, or Ημέρα του Αγίου Βαλεντίνου in Greek tradition was not associated with romantic love; In the Eastern Orthodox church there is another Saint who protects people who are in love, Hyacinth of Caesarea (feast day 3 July), but in contemporary Greece, this tradition has mostly been superseded by the “globalized” form of Valentine’s Day.
In India, in antiquity, there was a tradition of adoring Kamadeva, the lord of love; exemplificated by the erotic carvings in the Khajuraho Group of Monuments and by the writing of the Kamasutra treaty of lovemaking. This tradition was lost around the Middle Ages, when Kamadeva was no longer celebrated, and public displays of sexual affection became frowned upon. This repression of public affections persisted until the 1990s.
In the state of West Bengal, Saraswati Puja, a festival observed in early spring where Saraswati, the goddess of learning is worshiped; has often been seen as a Bengali version of Valentine’s Day; especially among the urban middle class youth.
Valentine’s Day celebrations didn’t catch on in India until around 1992. It was spread due to the programs in commercial TV channels, such as MTV, dedicated radio programs and love letter competitions, in addition to an economical liberalization that allowed the explosion of the valentine card industry. Economic liberalization also helped the Valentine card industry. The celebration has caused a sharp change on how people have been displaying their affection in public since the Middle Ages.
In modern times, Hindu and Islamic traditionalists have considered the holiday to be cultural contamination from the West, a result of the globalization in India. Asaram Bapu, the Hindu leader of the Sant Sri Asaramji Ashram has stated that “Those who celebrate ‘Valentine’s Day’ in the present manner, do in fact insult the saint himself; for they try to start a love-affair before their actual marriage by sending Valentine cards to one another. Had St. Valentine supported this system, he would not have solemnized the marriages in the first place.” Asaram Bapu promotes the alternative holiday of “Matri Pitri Pujan Diwas” (Parents Worship Day, literally “Day for Worship of Father and Mother”), which is already celebrated in the public schools of district Chhattishgarh. Shiv Sena and the Sangh Parivar have asked their followers to shun the holiday and the “public admission of love” because of them being “alien to Indian culture”. Although these protests are organized by political elites, the protesters themselves are middle-class Hindu men who fear that the globalization will destroy the traditions in their society: arranged marriages, Hindu joint families, full-time mothers, etc.
Despite these obstacles, Valentine’s Day is becoming increasingly popular in India.
Valentine’s Day has been strongly criticized from a postcolonial perspective by intellectuals from the Indian left. The holiday is regarded as a front for “Western imperialism”, “neocolonialism“, and “the exploitation of working classes through commercialism by multinational corporations“. Studies have shown that Valentine’s Day promotes and exacerbates income inequality in India, and aids in the creation of a pseudo-westernized middle class. As a result, the working classes and rural poor become more disconnected socially, politically, and geographically from the hegemonic capitalist power structure. They also criticize mainstream media attacks on Indians opposed to Valentine’s Day as a form of demonization that is designed and derived to further the Valentine’s Day agenda. Right wing Hindu nationalists are also hostile. In February 2012 Subash Chouhan of the Bajrang Dal warned couples that “They cannot kiss or hug in public places. Our activists will beat them up”. He said “We are not against love, but we criticize vulgar exhibition of love at public places”.
In Iran, the Sepandarmazgan, or Esfandegan, is a festival where people express love towards their mothers and wives, and it is also a celebration of earth in ancient Persian culture. It has been progressively forgotten in favor of the Western celebration of Valentine’s Day. The Association of Iran’s Cultural and Natural Phenomena has been trying since 2006 to make Sepandarmazgan a national holiday on 17 February, in order to replace the Western holiday.
In Israel, the Jewish tradition of Tu B’Av has been revived and transformed into the Jewish equivalent of Valentine’s Day. It is celebrated on the 15th day of the month of Av (usually in late August). In ancient times girls would wear white dresses and dance in the vineyards, where the boys would be waiting for them (Mishna Taanith end of Chapter 4). Today, Tu Be’av is celebrated as a second holiday of love by secular people (besides Saint Valentine’s Day), and it shares many of the customs associated with Saint Valentine’s Day in western societies. In modern Israeli culture Tu Be’av is a popular day to pronounce love, propose marriage and give gifts like cards or flowers.
In Japan, Morozoff Ltd. introduced the holiday for the first time in 1936, when it ran an advertisement aimed at foreigners. Later in 1953 it began promoting the giving of heart-shaped chocolates; other Japanese confectionery companies followed suit thereafter. In 1958 the Isetan department store ran a “Valentine sale”. Further campaigns during the 1960s popularized the custom.
The custom that only women give chocolates to men appears to have originated from the translation error of a chocolate-company executive during the initial campaigns. In particular, office ladies give chocolate to their co-workers. Unlike western countries, gifts such as greeting cards, candies, flowers, or dinner dates are uncommon, and most of the activity about the gifts is about giving the right amount of chocolate to each person. Japanese chocolate companies make half their annual sales during this time of the year.
Many women feel obliged to give chocolates to all male co-workers, except when the day falls on a Sunday, a holiday. This is known as giri-choko (義理チョコ), from giri (“obligation”) and choko, (“chocolate”), with unpopular co-workers receiving only “ultra-obligatory” chō-giri choko cheap chocolate. This contrasts with honmei-choko (本命チョコ, favorite chocolate), chocolate given to a loved one. Friends, especially girls, may exchange chocolate referred to as tomo-choko (友チョコ); from tomo meaning “friend”.
In the 1980s the Japanese National Confectionery Industry Association launched a successful campaign to make March 14 a “reply day”, where men are expected to return the favour to those who gave them chocolates on Valentine’s Day, calling it White Day for the color of the chocolates being offered. A previous failed attempt to popularize this celebration had been done by a marshmallow manufacturer who wanted men to return marshmallows to women.
Men are expected to return gifts that are at least two or three times more valuable than the gifts received in Valentine’s Day. Not returning the gift is perceived as the man placing himself in a position of superiority, even if excuses are given. Returning a present of equal value is considered as a way to say that you are cutting the relationship. Originally only chocolate was given, but now the gifts of jewelry, accessories, clothing and lingerie are usual. According to the official website of White Day, the color white was chosen because it’s the color of purity, evoking “pure, sweet teen love”, and because it’s also the color of sugar. The initial name was “Ai ni Kotaeru White Day” (Answer Love on White Day).
In a 2006 survey of people between 10 and 49 years of age in Japan, Oricon Style found the 1986 Sayuri Kokushō single “Valentine Kiss” to be the most popular Valentine’s Day song, even though it sold only 317,000 copies. The singles it beat in the ranking were number one selling “Love Love Love” from Dreams Come True (2,488,630 copies) and “Valentine’s Radio” from Yumi Matsutoya (1,606,780 copies). The final song in the top five was “My Funny Valentine” by Miles Davis.
In Japan, a slightly different version of 七夕 called Tanabata has been celebrated for centuries, on July 7 (Gregorian calendar). It has been considered by Westerners as similar to St. Valentine’s Day, but it’s not related to it, and its origins are completely different.
In some Latin American countries Valentine’s Day is known as “Día del Amor y la Amistad” (Day of Love and Friendship). For example Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, and Puerto Rico, as well as others. It is also common to see people perform “acts of appreciation” for their friends. In Guatemala it is known as the “Día del Cariño” (Affection Day). In Brazil, the Dia dos Namorados (lit. “Lovers’ Day”, or “Boyfriends’/Girlfriends’ Day”) is celebrated on June 12, probably because that is the day before Saint Anthony’s day, known there as the marriage saint, when traditionally many single women perform popular rituals, called simpatias, in order to find a good husband or boyfriend. Couples exchange gifts, chocolates, cards and flower bouquets. The February 14 Valentine’s Day is not celebrated at all because it usually falls too little before or too little after the Brazilian Carnival — that can fall anywhere from early February to early March and lasts almost a week. Because of the absence of Valentine’s Day and due to the celebrations of the Carnivals, Brazil is a popular tourist spot during February for Western singles who want to get away from the holiday.
In most of Latin America the Día del amor y la amistad and the Amigo secreto (“Secret friend”) are quite popular and are usually celebrated together on the 14 February (one exception is Colombia, where it is celebrated on the third Saturday in September). The latter consists of randomly assigning to each participant a recipient who is to be given an anonymous gift (similar to the Christmas tradition of Secret Santa).
In the Philippines, Valentine’s Day is called Araw ng mga Puso (“Hearts Day”), and is celebrated in much the same manner as in the West. It is usually marked by a steep increase in the price of flowers, particularly red roses.
In Portugal it is more commonly referred to as “Dia dos Namorados” (Lover’s Day / Day of the Enamoured).
In Romania, the traditional holiday for lovers is Dragobete, which is celebrated on February 24. It is named after a character from Romanian folklore who was supposed to be the son of Baba Dochia. Part of his name is the word drag (“dear”), which can also be found in the word dragoste (“love”). In recent years, Romania has also started celebrating Valentine’s Day, despite already having Dragobete as a traditional holiday. This has drawn backlash from several groups, institutions and nationalist organizations like Noua Dreaptǎ, who condemn Valentine’s Day for being superficial, commercialist and imported Western kitsch.
In Denmark and Norway, although February 14 is known as Valentinsdag, it is not celebrated to a large extent, but is largely imported from American culture, and some people take time to eat a romantic dinner with their partner, to send a card to a secret love or give a red rose to their loved one. The cut-flower industry in particular is still working on promoting the holiday. In Sweden it is called Alla hjärtans dag (“All Hearts’ Day”) and was launched in the 1960s by the flower industry’s commercial interests, and due to the influence of American culture. It is not an official holiday, but its celebration is recognized and sales of cosmetics and flowers for this holiday are only exceeded by those for Mother’s Day.
According to findings, Singaporeans are among the biggest spenders on Valentine’s Day, with 60% of Singaporeans indicating that they would spend between $100 and $500 during the season leading up to the holiday.
In South Korea, similar to Japan, women give chocolate to men on February 14, and men give non-chocolate candy to women on March 14 (White Day). On April 14 (Black Day), those who did not receive anything on 14 February or March go to a Korean restaurant to eat black noodles (자장면 jajangmyeon) and “mourn” their single life. Koreans also celebrate Pepero Day on November 11, when young couples give each other Pepero cookies. The date ’11/11′ is intended to resemble the long shape of the cookie. The 14th of every month marks a love-related day in Korea, although most of them are obscure. From January to December: Candle Day, Valentine’s Day, White Day, Black Day, Rose Day, Kiss Day, Silver Day, Green Day, Music Day, Wine Day, Movie Day, and Hug Day. Korean women give a much higher amount of chocolate than Japanese women.
In Spain Valentine’s Day is known as “San Valentín” and is celebrated the same way as in the UK, although in Catalonia it is largely superseded by similar festivities of rose and/or book giving on La Diada de Sant Jordi (Saint George’s Day).
Conflict with Islamic countries and political parties
In the first part of the 21st century, the celebration of Valentine’s Day in Iran has been harshly criticized by Islamic Teachers who see the celebrations as opposed to Islamic culture. In 2011, the Iranian printing works owners’ union issued a directive banning the printing and distribution of any goods promoting the holiday, including cards, gifts and teddy bears. “Printing and producing any goods related to this day including posters, boxes and cards emblazoned with hearts or half-hearts, red roses and any activities promoting this day are banned … Outlets that violate this will be legally dealt with”, the union warned.
Islamic officials in Malaysia warned Muslims against celebrating Valentine’s Day, linking it with vice activities. Deputy Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin said the celebration of romantic love was “not suitable” for Muslims. Wan Mohamad Sheikh Abdul Aziz, head of the Malaysian Islamic Development Department (Jakim), which oversees the country’s Islamic policies said that a fatwa (ruling) issued by the country’s top clerics in 2005 noted that the day ‘is associated with elements of Christianity,’ and ‘we just cannot get involved with other religion’s worshipping rituals.’ Jakim officials planned to carry out a nationwide campaign called “Awas Jerat Valentine’s Day” (“Mind the Valentine’s Day Trap”), aimed at preventing Muslims from celebrating the day on 14 February 2011. Activities include conducting raids in hotels to stop young couples from having unlawful sex and distributing leaflets to Muslim university students warning them against the day.
On Valentine’s Day 2011, Malaysian religious authorities arrested more than 100 Muslim couples concerning the celebration ban. Some of them would be charged in the Shariah Court for defying the department’s ban against the celebration of Valentine’s Day.
The concept of Valentine’s Day was introduced into Pakistan during the late 1990s with special TV and radio programs. The Jamaat-e-Islami political party has called for the banning of Valentine’s Day celebration. Despite this, the celebration is becoming popular among urban youth and the florists expect to sell a great amount of flowers, especially red roses. The case is the same with card publishers.
In Saudi Arabia, in 2002 and 2008, religious police banned the sale of all Valentine’s Day items, telling shop workers to remove any red items, because the day is considered a Christian holiday. This ban has created a black market for roses and wrapping paper. In 2012 the religious police arrested more than 140 Muslims for celebrating the holiday, and confiscated all red roses from flower shops. Muslims are not allowed to celebrate the holiday, and non-Muslims can celebrate only behind closed doors.
- Sailor’s valentine
- Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre
- Singles Awareness Day
- Valentine’s Day (2010 film)
- V-Day, the global movement to end violence against women and girls.
- Women’s Memorial March, held on Valentine’s Day in Vancouver, British Columbia.
- Jump up ^ For example, one source claims incorrectly that “Pope Gelasius I muddled things in the 5th century by combining St. Valentine’s Day with Lupercalia to expel the pagan rituals.” Seipel, Arnie, The Dark Origins Of Valentine’s Day, Nation Public Radio, February 13, 2011
- Jump up ^ Ansgar, 1976, pp. 60–61. The replacement of Lupercalia with Saint Valentine’s celebration was suggested by researchers Kellog and Cox. Ansgar says “It is hardly credible, then, that Pope Gelasius could have introduced the feast of the Purification to counteract the Lupercalia, and in fact the historical records of his pontificate give no hint of such an action.”
- Jump up ^ Ansgar, 1976, pp. 60–61. This feast is celebrated 40 days after the Nativity. In Jerusalem the Nativity was celebrated on January 6, and this feast in February 14. But, in the West and even in Eastern places such as Antioch and Alexandria, Nativity was celebrated on December 25, and this Purification was not celebrated. When this feast was introduced to Rome, it was directly placed in February 2. Around that time, Jerusalem adopted the Nativity date of December 25 and moved the Purification to February 2.
- Jump up ^ Chambers 21st Century Dictionary, Revised ed., Allied Publishers, 2005 ISBN 9780550142108
- Jump up ^ Ansgar, 1986, Chaucer and the Cult of Saint valentine, pp. 46-58
- ^ Jump up to: a b c Ansgar, 1986, p. 59. It originated in the 1797 edition of Kemmish’s Annual, according to Frank Staff, The Valentine and Its Origins (London, 1969), p. 122. Ansgar was unable to corroborate this.
- ^ Jump up to: a b “Holy Days”. Church of England (Anglican Communion). 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2012. “February 14 Valentine, Martyr at Rome, c.269″
- ^ Jump up to: a b Pfatteicher, Philip H. (1 August 2008). New Book of Festivals and Commemorations: A Proposed Common Calendar of Saints. Fortress Press. p. 86. ISBN 9780800621285. Retrieved 27 October 2012. “IO February 14 The Lutheran Service Book, with its penchant for the old Roman calendar, commemorates Valentine on this date.”
- ^ Jump up to: a b Leigh Eric Schmidt, “The Fashioning of a Modern Holiday: St. Valentine’s Day, 1840–1870″ Winterthur Portfolio 28.4 (Winter 1993), pp. 209–245.
- Jump up ^ Henry Ansgar Kelly, in Chaucer and the Cult of Saint Valentine (Leiden: Brill) 1986, accounts for these and further local Saints Valentine (Ch. 6 “The Genoese Saint Valentine and the observances of May”) in arguing that Chaucer had an established tradition in mind, and (pp. 79 ff.) linking the Valentine in question to Valentine, first bishop of Genoa, the only Saint Valentine honoured with a feast in springtime, the season indicated by Chaucer. Valentine of Genoa was treated by Jacobus of Verazze in his Chronicle of Genoa (Kelly p. 85).
- Jump up ^ Oxford Dictionary of Saints, s.v. “Valentine”: “The Acts of both are unreliable, and the Bollandists assert that these two Valentines were in fact one and the same.”
- Jump up ^ Matilda Webb, The Churches and Catacombs of Early Christian Rome, 2001, Sussex Academic Press.
- Jump up ^ “Saint Valentine’s Day: Legend of the Saint”. novareinna.com.
- Jump up ^ flower crowned skull.
- Jump up ^ Meera, Lester (2011). Sacred Travels. Adams Media. ISBN 1440525463.
- Jump up ^ Alison Chapman. Patrons and Patron Saints in Early Modern English Literature. Routledge. pg. 122.
- Jump up ^ “Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Valentine”. newadvent.org.
- ^ Jump up to: a b c d Ansgar, 1986, pp. 58–63
- Jump up ^ Calendarium Romanum ex Decreto Sacrosancti Œcumenici Concilii Vaticani II Instauratum Auctoritate Pauli PP. VI Promulgatum (Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, MCMLXIX), p. 117.
- Jump up ^ Pravmir – St. Valentine’s Day: Legend and Reality
- Jump up ^ Coptic Orthodox Church – From Where Valentine’s Day Comes From[dead link]
- Jump up ^ “Happy Valentine’s Day History And Myths Behind It”
- Jump up ^ J.C. Cooper, Dictionary of Christianity, 2013, Routledge.
- ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Oruch, Jack B., “St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February“, Speculum, 56 (1981): 534–65. Oruch’s survey of the literature finds no association between Valentine and romance prior to Chaucer. He concludes that Chaucer is likely to be “the original mythmaker in this instance.” Colfa.utsa.edu
- ^ Jump up to: a b c Ansgar, 1986, pp. 49–50
- Jump up ^ Legenda Aurea, “Saint Valentine”, catholic-forum.com.
- Jump up ^ Ruth Webb Lee, A History of Valentines, 1952, Studio Publications in association with Crowell.
- Jump up ^ John Foxe. Voices of the Martyrs. Bridge Logos Foundation. pg. 62.
- Jump up ^ http://www.carmelites.ie/ireland/whitefriar%20st/valentine.htm Shrine of St Valentine, Whitefriar Street Church
- ^ Jump up to: a b David James Harkness, Legends and Lore: Southerns Indians Flowers Holidays, vol. XL, No. 2, April 1961, University of Tennessee Newsletter (bimonthly), p. 15.
- ^ Jump up to: a b c Max L. Christensen, Heroes and Saints: More Stories of People Who Made a Difference, 1997, Westminster John Knox Press. Chapter “The First Valentine”, p. 25 ISBN 066425702X
- Jump up ^ George Monger (9 April 2013). Marriage Customs of the World: An Encyclopedia of Dating Customs and Wedding Traditions, Expanded Second Edition [2 Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 665–671. ISBN 978-1-59884-664-5.
- Jump up ^ Frank Staff, The Valentine & Its Origins, 1969, Frederick A. Praeger.
- Jump up ^ The Illustrated Library of the Natural Sciences, Volume 1, 1958, Simon and Schuster. p. 85 “The amethyst is the birthstone for February, and Saint Valentine is supposed to have worn an amethyst engraved with a figure of Cupid”
- Jump up ^ Rayner W. Hesse (1 January 2007). Jewelrymaking Through History: An Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-313-33507-5. “It appears as the birthstone from February probably due to its association with Saint Valentine; therefore, amethyst has often been worn to attract love.”
- Jump up ^ http://www.information-britain.co.uk/customdetail.php?id=45
- Jump up ^ http://www.visitnorwich.co.uk/valentines-romantic-norfolk.aspx
- ^ Jump up to: a b Kliner, Pavla (15 February 2008). “Sv. Valentin, prvi spomladin” [St Valentin, the First Spring Saint]. Gorenjski glas (in Slovene).
- Jump up ^ “Vreme kot nalašč za izlete” [Weather As On Purpose for Trips]. Dnevnik.si (in Slovene). 9 February 2011.
- Jump up ^ Michael Matthew Kaylor (2006). Secreted Desires: The Major Uranians: Hopkins, Pater and Wilde (electronic ed.). Masaryk University Press. p. footnote 2 in page 235. ISBN 80-210-4126-9
- Jump up ^ Jack B. Oruch, “St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February” Speculum 56.3 (July 1981:534–565)
- Jump up ^ Ansgar, 1976, pp. 60–61.
- Jump up ^ Ansgar, 1976, pp. 60–61.
- ^ Jump up to: a b Meg Sullivan (February 1, 2001). “Henry Ansgar Kelly, Valentine’s Day”. UCLA Spotlight.
- Jump up ^ “Chaucer: The Parliament of Fowls”., wsu.edu
- Jump up ^ Kelly, Henry Ansgar, Chaucer and the Cult of Saint Valentine (Brill Academic Publishers, 1997), ISBN 90-04-07849-5. Chapter 6 The Genoese St. Valentine, p. 80–83.
- Jump up ^ “Take heart, Valentine’s every other week”. Independent Online. February 9, 2001. Archived from the original on 2009-02-05. Retrieved 2012-02-14. “Kelly gives the saint’s day of the Genoese Valentine as May 3 and also claims that Richard’s engagement was announced on this day.”
- Jump up ^ Oruch 1981:539.
- Jump up ^ Ansgar, 1986, Chapter 5, Grandson, Pardo and Gower, pp. 64–76
- ^ Jump up to: a b c d Ansgar, 1986, Chapter 8, The Hibermantino of the Mating Season, pp. 131–138
- Jump up ^ “Domestic Violence, Discourses of Romantic Love, and Complex Personhood in the Law”. Melbourne University Law Review 211 (Austlii.edu.au). 1999. Retrieved 2011-08-06. citing Peter Goodrich, ‘Law in the Courts of Love: Andreas Capellanus and the Judgments of Love’ (1996) 48 Stanford Law Review 633, 636.
- Jump up ^ “Court of Love: Valentine’s Day, 1400″. Archived from the original on 2006-06-14., virtualmuseum.ca
- Jump up ^ A Farewell to Love in wikisource
- Jump up ^ History Channel, historychannel.com.
- Jump up ^ Davis, Norman. The Paston Letters: A Selection in Modern Spelling. Oxford University Press, 1983. pp. 233–5.
- Jump up ^ Spenser, The Faery Queene iii, Canto 6, Stanza 6: on-line text
- Jump up ^ Gammer Gurton’s Garland (London, 1784) in I. Opie and P. Opie, The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes (Oxford University Press, 1951, 2nd ed., 1997), p. 375.
- Jump up ^ Gammer Gurton’s Garland, original 1810 version. Also 1810 version reprinted in 1866 that uses more modern grammar like “should” instead of “shou’d”.
- Jump up ^ Charles Panati (1987). Extraordinary origins of everyday things. p.57. Perennial Library, 1987
- Jump up ^ Vivian Krug Hotchkiss, Emotions Greeting Cards, VH Productions, firstname.lastname@example.org (1910-02-14). “Emotionscards.com”. Emotionscards.com. Retrieved 2011-08-06.
- Jump up ^ “Valentine cards reveal Britain’s relationship history”, Manchester Metropolitan University, Retrieved February 8, 2014
- Jump up ^ “MMU Special Collections – Victorian Ephemera”. Manchester Metropolitan University. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- Jump up ^ Laura Seddon (1996). Victorian Valentines: A Guide to the Laura Seddon Collection of Valentine Cards in Manchester Metropolitan University Library. Manchester Metropolitan University. Retrieved November 8, 2013.
- ^ Jump up to: a b c “Americans Valentine’s Day”
. U.S. Greeting Card Association. 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-16.[dead link]
- ^ Jump up to: a b Eve Devereux (2006). Love & Romance Facts, Figures & Fun (illustrated ed.). AAPPL. p. 28. ISBN 1-904332-33-1
- Jump up ^ Hobbies, Volume 52, Issues 7–12 p.18. Lightner Pub. Co., 1947
- ^ Jump up to: a b Vivian Krug Hotchkiss, Emotions Greeting Cards, VH Productions, email@example.com. “Esther Howland”. Emotionscards.com. Retrieved 2011-08-06.
- Jump up ^ Dean, Dorothy (1990) On the Collectible Trail p.90. Discovery Publications, 1990
- Jump up ^ Quoted in Schmidt 1993:209.
- Jump up ^ Gaskell, Elizabeth Cranford and Selected Short Stories p. 258. Wordsworth Editions, 2006.
- Jump up ^ “Valentine’s Day worth £1.3 Billion to UK Retailers”. British Retail Consortium.[dead link]
- Jump up ^ Leigh Eric Schmidt, “The Commercialization of the calendar: American holidays and the culture of consumption, 1870–1930″ Journal of American History 78.3 (December 1991) pp 890–98.
- Jump up ^ Lenz, Kristin (February 10, 2012). “On Valentine’s Day, do we still need Hallmark?”. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 14, 2012.
- Jump up ^ New Patterns for Worship. Church of England. 2002. p. 408. ISBN 0715120603.
- ^ Jump up to: a b Domingo, Ronnel. Among Asians, Filipinos dig Valentine’s Day the most. Philippine Daily Inquirer, February 14, 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- Jump up ^ http://www.folklore.ee/Berta/tahtpaev-valentinipaev.php
- ^ Jump up to: a b c d e “India’s fascination with Valentine’s Day. The BBC’s Vijay Rana explains how Valentine’s Day has replaced more traditional celebrations of love in India”. BBC. 14 February 2002
- ^ Jump up to: a b c d Steve Derné (2008). “7. Globalizing gender culture. Transnational cultural flows and the intensification of male dominance in India”. In Kathy E. Ferguson, Monique Mironesco. Gender and globalization in Asia and the Pacific: method, practice, theory. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 127–129. ISBN 978-0-8248-3241-4
- ^ Jump up to: a b George Monger (2004). Marriage customs of the world: from henna to honeymoons (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-987-4.
- Jump up ^ Rishi Prasad. Valentine’s Day or Sin Day? Sant Sri Asaramji Ashram. http://ashram.org/Publications/ArticleView/tabid/417/smid/1189/ArticleID/372/reftab/536/Default.aspx
- Jump up ^ Now, Asaram Bapu slams ‘moral degradation’ of India’s youth, ExpressIndia, 16 January 2013
- Jump up ^ Asaram Bapu. Parents Worship Day – February 14 http://www.mppd.ashram.org/InspirersMessage.aspx
- Jump up ^ Anil Mathew Varughese (2003). “Globalization versus cultural authenticity? Valentine’s Day and Hindu values”. In Richard Sandbrook. Civilizing globalization: a survival guide. SUNY series in radical social and political theory (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-7914-5667-5
- ^ Jump up to: a b Hindu and Muslim anger at Valentine’s. BBC. 2003-02-11
- Jump up ^ Sharma, Satya (1996). “The cultural costs of a globalized economy for India”. Dialectical Anthropology 21 (3–4): 299–316. doi:10.1007/BF00245771.
- Jump up ^ Mankekar, Purnima (1999). Screening, Culture, Viewing Politics: An Ethnography of Television, Womanhood Nation in Postcolonial India. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2390-7.
- Jump up ^ As quoted in ‘India Today: Pot Pourri Generation’ 15 September issue, 2005
- Jump up ^ “Valentine’s Day: Fear stalks couples on day of love”. The Times of India. February 14, 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- Jump up ^ “Bajrang Dal threat keeps couples at bay on V-Day”. The Times of India. February 15, 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- Jump up ^ Esfandegan to Replace Valentine. Iran Daily. 2008-12-31. p. 6. Archived from the original on 2008-05-11, nitc.co.ir
- Jump up ^ Binyamin Kagedan / jns.org (February 8, 2012). “Evolution of Tu Be’av into Jewish Valentine’s Day. A celebration falling 6 days after Tisha Be’av has been re-imagined as a Jewish version of Valentine’s Day”. The Jerusalem Post
- ^ Jump up to: a b c Gordenker, A. “So, what the heck is that? White Day”. in Japan Times. (March 21, 2006). Retrieved June 30, 2007.
- ^ Jump up to: a b c Katherine Rupp (2003). Gift-giving in Japan: cash, connections, cosmologies (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. pp. 149–151. ISBN 0-8047-4704-0
- ^ Jump up to: a b c d Chris Yeager (2009-02-13). Valentine’s Day in Japan. Japan America Society of Greater Philadelphia (JASGP). Archived from the original on 25 July 2011.
- ^ Jump up to: a b c Risa Yoshimura (2006-02-14). “No matter where you’re from, Valentine’s Day still means the same”. The Pacer 78 (18). Archived from the original on 2006-04-27
- Jump up ^ Yuko Ogasawara (1998). University of California Press, ed. Office Ladies and Salaried Men: Power, Gender, and Work in Japanese Companies (illustrated ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 98–113, 142–154, 156, 163. ISBN 0-520-21044-1.
- Jump up ^ Ron Huza (he was an ESL in Japan for 11 years) (2007-02-14). “Lost in translation: The cultural divide over Valentine’s Day”. The Gazette
- ^ Jump up to: a b “大公開！『バレンタインソング』といえばこの曲！” [The Great Exhibition! When speaking of a "Valentine song", this is the song!] (in Japanese). Oricon Style. February 3, 2006. Archived from the original on March 17, 2010. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- Jump up ^ Caprice Reflections AuthorHouse, 2007
- Jump up ^ E.I.S. (1925-02-15). “Japan has a Valentine Day based on a tender legend”. New York Times
- Jump up ^ “Amor y Amistad”. Alcaldía de Santiago de Cali. 2013-11-05. Retrieved 2013-02-14.
- Jump up ^ Alexander Sanchez C. (2010-02-12). “El cine transpiraamores y desamores”. La Nación (La Nación (San José)). Archived from the original on 2010-03-24. Retrieved 2012-02-14.
- Jump up ^ [http://ww1.elco/ref
> In the 1980s the Japanese National Confectionery Industry Association launched a successful campaign to make March 14 a "reply day", where men are expected to return the favour to those who gave them chocolates on Valentine's Day, calling it White Day for the color of the chocolates being offered. A previous failed attempt to popularize this celebration had been done by a marshmallow manufacturer who wanted men to return marshmallows to women.mercio.com/noticiaEC.asp?id_noticia=334553&id_seccion=7 "Sacoto canta por San Valentín"]. El Comercio. “El cantante y compositor presentará un show romántico por el Día del Amor y la Amistad.”[dead link]
- Jump up ^ Notimex. “Realizará GDF cuarta feria por Día del Amor y la Amistad”. El Universal.
- Jump up ^ “Para quererte”. El Periódico de Guatemala. 2010-02-10
- Jump up ^ História do Dia dos Namorados no Brasil e no mundo, São Valentim, data 12 de junho, tradição suapesquisa.com – Datas Comemorativas
- Jump up ^ The Psychology of Carnaval, TIME Magazine, February 14, 1969
- Jump up ^ http://travel.usnews.com/features/7_Best_Cities_for_Singles/
- Jump up ^ Valentine`s Day versus Dragobete at the Wayback Machine (archived June 27, 2010), cultura.ro (Romanian)
- Jump up ^ Korea rivals U.S. in romantic holidays at the Wayback Machine (archived February 17, 2009), Centre Daily Times, February 14, 2009.
- Jump up ^ Iran shops banned from selling Valentine gifts, AFP 02-01-2010
- Jump up ^ “Iran Valentine’s Day Snub”. The Huffington Post. January 2, 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-14.
- Jump up ^ “Malaysian Muslims warned against Valentine’s Day”. The Straits Times. 2011-02-13. Archived from the original on 2011-04-29.
- Jump up ^ “Malaysia Warns Muslims of Valentine’s Day Trap”. BBC News. 2011-02-13.
- Jump up ^ “Malaysia Arrests 100 Muslim Couples for Celebrating Lovers’ Day”. The Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 2011-08-06.
- Jump up ^ Flower sellers await Valentine’s Day. The Nation. 2010-02-08. Archived from the original on 2011-04-27
- Jump up ^ “Cooling the ardour of Valentine’s Day”. BBC News. 3 February 2002.
- ^ Jump up to: a b “Saudis clamp down on valentines”. BBC News. 11 February 2008.
- Jump up ^ Meris Lutz (13 February 2010). “Saudi officials put the squeeze on Valentine’s Day. Saudi Arabia’s religious police have banned anything related to the lovers holiday and warned store owners not to sell such merchandise. But many know how to circumvent the ban”. LA Times
- Jump up ^ BBC (15 February 2012). “Religious police swoop on Valentine’s Day lovers”. ABC News
- Jump up ^ Fatima Muhammad and Mariam Nihal (14 February 2013). “Police, Hai’a deny special Valentine’s Day crackdowns”. Saudi Gazette
- Ansgar Kelly, Henry (1986), “The Valentines of February”, Chaucer and the cult of Saint Valentine, Davis medieval texts and studies 5, BRILL, ISBN 978-90-04-07849-9
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Valentine’s Day.|
- Saint Valentine’s Day – BBC
- Who was St. Valentine? — St Peter Orthodox Christian Church
- “The History of Valentine’s Day”. History.com.
- The History of Valentine’s Day at the Wayback Machine (archived February 7, 2010) – History.com, A&E Television Networks. Retrieved February 2, 2010.
- History of Valentine’s Day Christianity Today International. Retrieved February 2, 2010; “Then Again Maybe Don’t Be My Valentine”, Ted Olsen, 2000-01-02
- “Basilica of Saint Valentine in Terni”. virtualmuseum.ca. Archived from the original on 2007-02-16.
- Fedorova, Tatiana (14 February 2012). “St. Valentine” . Pravmir. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
6 Surprising Facts About St. Valentine
6 Surprising Facts About St. Valentine
1. The St. Valentine who inspired the holiday may have been two different men.
Officially recognized by the Roman Catholic Church, St. Valentine is known to be a real person who died around A.D. 270. However, his true identity was questioned as early as A.D. 496 by Pope Gelasius I, who referred to the martyr and his acts as “being known only to God.” One account from the 1400s describes Valentine as a temple priest who was beheaded near Rome by the emperor Claudius II for helping Christian couples wed. A different account claims Valentine was the Bishop of Terni, also martyred by Claudius II on the outskirts of Rome. Because of the similarities of these accounts, it’s thought they may refer to the same person. Enough confusion surrounds the true identity of St. Valentine that the Catholic Church discontinued liturgical veneration of him in 1969, though his name remains on its list of officially recognized saints.
2. In all, there are about a dozen St. Valentines, plus a pope.
The saint we celebrate on Valentine’s Day is known officially as St. Valentine of Rome in order to differentiate him from the dozen or so other Valentines on the list. Because “Valentinus”—from the Latin word for worthy, strong or powerful—was a popular moniker between the second and eighth centuries A.D., several martyrs over the centuries have carried this name. The official Roman Catholic roster of saints shows about a dozen who were named Valentine or some variation thereof. The most recently beatified Valentine is St. Valentine Berrio-Ochoa, a Spaniard of the Dominican order who traveled to Vietnam, where he served as bishop until his beheading in 1861. Pope John Paul II canonized Berrio-Ochoa in 1988. There was even a Pope Valentine, though little is known about him except that he served a mere 40 days around A.D. 827.
3. Valentine is the patron saint of beekeepers and epilepsy, among many other things.
Saints are certainly expected to keep busy in the afterlife. Their holy duties include interceding in earthly affairs and entertaining petitions from living souls. In this respect, St. Valentine has wide-ranging spiritual responsibilities. People call on him to watch over the lives of lovers, of course, but also for interventions regarding beekeeping and epilepsy, as well as the plague, fainting and traveling. As you might expect, he’s also the patron saint of engaged couples and happy marriages.
4. You can find Valentine’s skull in Rome.
The flower-adorned skull of St. Valentine is on display in the Basilica of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, Rome. In the early 1800s, the excavation of a catacomb near Rome yielded skeletal remains and other relics now associated with St. Valentine. As is customary, these bits and pieces of the late saint’s body have subsequently been distributed to reliquaries around the world. You’ll find other bits of St. Valentine’s skeleton on display in the Czech Republic, Ireland, Scotland, England and France.
5. Chaucer may have invented Valentine’s Day.
The medieval English poet Geoffrey Chaucer often took liberties with history, placing his poetic characters into fictitious historical contexts that he represented as real. No record exists of romantic celebrations on Valentine’s Day prior to a poem Chaucer wrote around 1375. In his work “Parliament of Foules,” he links a tradition of courtly love with the celebration of St. Valentine’s feast day–an association that didn’t exist until after his poem received widespread attention. The poem refers to February 14 as the day birds (and humans) come together to find a mate. When Chaucer wrote, “For this was sent on Seynt Valentyne’s day / Whan every foul cometh ther to choose his mate,” he may have invented the holiday we know today.
6. You can celebrate Valentine’s Day several times a year.
Because of the abundance of St. Valentines on the Roman Catholic roster, you can choose to celebrate the saint multiple times each year. Besides February 14, you might decide to celebrate St. Valentine of Viterbo on November 3. Or maybe you want to get a jump on the traditional Valentine celebration by feting St. Valentine of Raetia on January 7. Women might choose to honor the only female St. Valentine (Valentina), a virgin martyred in Palestine on July 25, A.D. 308. The Eastern Orthodox Church officially celebrates St. Valentine twice, once as an elder of the church on July 6 and once as a martyr on July 30.
Posted by Fr Nelson Madathikandam MCBS on February 11, 2014
Moran Mor Baselios Mar Cleemis, the Major Archbishop-Catholios
of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church
is elected the CBCI President
Pala: Cardinal Mar Baselios Cleemis, the Major Archbishop of Kerala-based Syro Malankara Catholic Church, was today elected as the President of the Catholic Bishops Conference of India.
Mar Cleemis replaces Cardinal Oswald Gracias, Major Archbishop of Mumbai Diocese, as the head of CBCI, the Council of Bishops from all three Catholic rites in India– Latin, Syro Malabar and Syro Malankara.
Cleemis (55), one of the youngest Cardinals of the Church, was selected for the key post by the eight-day CBCI’s biennial plenary, which began here on February 5.
Mar Cleemis was elevated to the College of Cardinals of the Universal Church by Pope Benedict XVI in 2012.
He was the first Cardinal of the Syro-Malankara Church, an influential Christian denomination in Kerala.
He is also a member of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches and of the Pontifical Council for Inter-religious Dialogue.
Cleemis was born on June 15, 1959 as Isaac Thottumkal at a village in Pathanamthitta district as the son of Mathew and Annamma Thottumkal.
He attended the Minor Seminary at Tiruvalla and received a B.Phil degree from St. Joseph’s Pontifical at Aluva.He later studied at the Papal Seminary and was ordained a priest on June 11,1986.
He took Masters in Theology from Dharmaram College, Bangalore and obtained doctorate from Ecumenical Theology from Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas (Angelicum), Rome in 1997.
The Vatican appointed Cleemis as Bishop of the Eparchy of Tiruvalla in 2003 and he was elevated as Mtropolitan Archbishop in 2006.
Cleemis rose to become the Second Catholicos of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church through the Episcopal Synod of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church in 2007.
Cleemis participated as a Cardinal-elector in the conclave that elected Pope Francis.
Catholic Bishops’ Conference of India
The Catholic Bishops’ Conference of India (CBCI) is the episcopal conference of the Catholic bishops of India. It was constituted in September 1944, in Madras (now Chennai). Since the establishment of the CBCI, the CBCI Secretariat was functioning in Bangalore until 1962 when it was shifted to the national capital, New Delhi. The CBCI is a part of the Federation of Asian Bishops’ Conferences.
|Catholic Bishops’ Conference of India|
|Motto||United in Witness|
|Legal status||Civil nonprofit|
|Purpose/focus||To support the ministry of bishops|
|Membership||Active and retired Catholic bishops of India|
|President||Cardinal Oswald Gracias|
|Affiliations||Federation of Asian Bishops’ Conferences|
|Website||Official CBCI webpage|
The ordinary members of the CBCI comprises all diocesan and eparchial bishops in India and those considered equal to them by canon law, as well as co-adjutor and auxiliary Bishops, and other titular Bishops performing a special work in India entrusted to them by the Apostolic See or by the Conference. Retired bishops and other titular tishops, not ordinary members of the Conference, and residing in India, are honorary members of the Conference. As of February 2013, the CBCI had around 165 members and 49 honorary members and it serves 167 dioceses.
The objectives of the CBCI are to facilitate coordinated study and discussion of questions affecting the Church, and adoption of a common policy and effective action in matters concerning the common interests of the Catholic Church in India. The CBCI reviews the position of the Church in India, and also undertakes a variety of activities covering, for example, the youth, health care and media. Another role of the CBCI is to foster the communion among the three sui juris Churches. The CBCI is the face of the Catholic Church in India promotes advocacy on national issues, makes representation to Government, liaises with the Government and networks with other Christian Churches, organizations, associations of civil society and people of other religions.
Related episcopal conferences of India
The CBCI is at the service of the different episcopal conferences of three rites and the 13 regional councils of bishops.
Episcopal bodies of the three rites
- Conference of the Catholic Bishops of India (CCBI) from Latin Church
- Syro-Malabar Bishops’ Synod (SMBS) from Syro-Malabar Church
- Holy Episcopal Synod from Syro-Malankara Church
Regional bishops’ councils
- The Agra Regional Bishops’ Council (ARBC) consists of the Bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Agra and dioceses of the Oriental Rites in Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Rajasthan.
- The Andhra Pradesh Bishops’ Council (APBC) comprises all the Bishops of the ecclesiastical provinces of Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam and dioceses of Oriental Rites in Andhra Pradesh.
- The Bengal Regional Bishops’ Council (BRBC) consists of the Bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Calcutta.
- The BIJHAN Regional Bishops’ Council (BRBC) consists of the Bishops of the ecclesiastical provinces of Ranchi and Patna.
- The Council of Bishops of Chhattisgarh (CBCG) consists of the Bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Raipur and diocese of Oriental Rite in Chhattisgarh.
- The Karnataka Regional Catholic Bishops’ Council (KRCBC) comprises all the Bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Bangalore and dioceses of Oriental Rites in Karnataka.
- The Kerala Catholic Bishops’ Council (KCBC) comprises all the Bishops of the ecclesiastical provinces of Changanacherry, Ernakulam-Angamaly, Kottayam, Trichur, Tellicherry, Tiruvalla, Trivandrum (Syro-Malankara Rite), Trivandrum (Latin Rite) and Verapoly.
- The Council of Bishops of Madhya Pradesh (CBMP) consists of the Bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Bhopal and dioceses of Oriental Rites in Madhya Pradesh.
- The Regional Bishops’ Council of the North consists of the Bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Delhi.
- The North Eastern Regional Council consists of the Bishops of the ecclesiastical provinces of Shillong, Guwahati and Imphal.
- The Orissa Bishops’ Regional Council (OBRC) consists of the Bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Cuttack-Bhubaneshwar.
- The Tamil Nadu Bishops’ Council (TNBC) comprises all the Bishops of ecclesiastical provinces of Madras-Mylapore, Madurai, Pondicherry-Cuddalore and dioceses of the Oriental Rites in Tamil Nadu.
- The Western Regional Bishops’ Council comprises all the Bishops of the ecclesiastical provinces of Bombay, Nagpur, Goa and Daman, Gandhinagar and dioceses of Oriental Rites in the Western Region.
- Valerian Gracias (1958–1972)
- Mar Joseph Parecattil (1972–1976)
- Lawrence Picachy, S.J. (1976–1982)
- Simon Pimenta (1982–1988)
- Benedict Varghese Gregorios Thangalathil, O.I.C. (1988–1989)
- Alphonsus Mathias 1989 – 1994)
- Joseph Powathil (1994–1998)
- Alan Basil de Lastic (1998 – 20 June 2000)
- Cyril Baselios Malancharuvil, O.I.C. (2000–2004)
- Telesphore Toppo (12 January 2004 – 19 February 2008)
- Mar Varkey Vithayathil, C. Ss. R. (19 February 2008 – 3 March 2010)
- Oswald Gracias (4 March 2010 – 11 February2014)
- Baselios Mar Cleemis ( 11 February 2014 – )
- Caritas India
- St. John’s National Academy of Health Sciences
- National Biblical, Catechetical and Liturgical Centre (NBCLC)
- National Vocation Service Centre (NVSC)
- National Institute of Social Communications, Research and Training (NISCORT)
- CBCI Society for Medical Education, North India
- CBCI official website
- CBCI picture gallery
- News Site of the Catholic Bishop’s Conference
- CBCI webpage
. GCatholic website
- International Meeting of Bishops’ Conferences webpage
. GCatholic.org website
- Episcopal Conferences
Posted by Fr Nelson Madathikandam MCBS on February 7, 2014
The proverb says that “one bad apple spoils the whole bunch.” That may be true of a crate of apples, but in today’s Gospel, Jesus tells us that it does not apply to people. Good is contagious.
Fifth Sunday of the Year (A)
13 ‘You are salt for the earth. But if salt loses its taste, what can make it salty again? It is good for nothing, and can only be thrown out to be trampled under people’s feet.
14 ‘You are light for the world. A city built on a hill-top cannot be hidden.
15 No one lights a lamp to put it under a tub; they put it on the lamp-stand where it shines for everyone in the house.
16 In the same way your light must shine in people’s sight, so that, seeing your good works, they may give praise to your Father in heaven.
Posted by Fr Nelson Madathikandam MCBS on February 2, 2014
Inspiring talk on Priesthood by
Blessed Mother Theresa of Calcutta
Posted by Fr Nelson Madathikandam MCBS on February 2, 2014
Inspiring talk on Priesthood by
Blessed Pope Mar John Paul II
Posted by Fr Nelson Madathikandam MCBS on February 1, 2014
Syro-Malabar Malayalam homily by
Fr Cyriac Thekkekuttu MCBS
Posted by Fr Nelson Madathikandam MCBS on January 31, 2014
For some people their god may take the form of money, or a nation, or an economic system, or social achievement, or race, or religion or family. For some people who consider themselves “good Catholics,” it may be a particular form of piety or Church structure. In all these cases, devotees hope to gain special advantages by their devotion.
22 And when the day came for them to be purified in keeping with the Law of Moses, they took him up to Jerusalem to present him to the Lord-
23 observing what is written in the Law of the Lord: Every first-born male must be consecrated to the Lord-
24 and also to offer in sacrifice, in accordance with what is prescribed in the Law of the Lord, a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons.
25 Now in Jerusalem there was a man named Simeon. He was an upright and devout man; he looked forward to the restoration of Israel and the Holy Spirit rested on him.
26 It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not see death until he had set eyes on the Christ of the Lord.
27 Prompted by the Spirit he came to the Temple; and when the parents brought in the child Jesus to do for him what the Law required,
28 he took him into his arms and blessed God; and he said:
29 Now, Master, you are letting your servant go in peace as you promised;
30 for my eyes have seen the salvati
Posted by Fr Nelson Madathikandam MCBS on January 27, 2014
തിരുവോസ്തി മാംസമായി: ഡോ. റിക്കാർഡോ കാസ്റ്റനോണിനെ ഉത്തമ കത്തോലിക്കനാക്കി
തിരുവോസ്തി മാംസമായി, ഫ്രാൻസിസ് മാർപാപ്പ ദൃക്സാക്ഷി ന്യൂയോർക്കിലെ അത്യാധുനിക ലബോറട്ടറിയിൽ നടത്തിയ ശാസ്ത്രീയ പരീക്ഷണത്തിനൊടുവിൽ സുപ്രസിദ്ധ ഫൊറൻസിക് പാതോളജി വിദഗ്ദ്ധൻ ഡോ. ഫ്രെഡറിക് തോമസ് സുഗിബെയുടെ ഒരേയൊരു ചോദ്യം ഡോ. റിക്കാർഡോ കാസ്റ്റനോണിനെ ഉത്തമ കത്തോലിക്കനാക്കി: ‘മരിച്ച ഒരാളുടെ ഹൃദയകോശം മുറിച്ചെടുത്ത് നിങ്ങളെങ്ങനെയാണ് ജീവനോടെ എന്റെയരികിൽ എത്തിച്ചത്?’ അമേരിക്കയിലും യൂറോപ്പിലും ഫൊറൻസിക് പാതോളജി ശാസ്ത്രശാഖയിലെ അവസാനവാക്കുകാരിൽ ഒരുവനായ ഡോ. ഫ്രെഡറിക് തോമസ് സുഗിബെയുടെ സംശയവും അത്ഭുതവും ഡോ. റിക്കാർഡോ കാസ്റ്റനോണിനെ ഉയിർപ്പിച്ചു, ഇന്നും ജീവിക്കുന്ന ക്രിസ്തുവിലേക്ക്. ലോകമെങ്ങും തന്റെ ദൈവാനുഭവം പകരുന്നതിന്റെ തിരക്കിലാണ് ഇദ്ദേഹം. ഹൃദയകോശം; മനുഷ്യന്റെ ഡിഎൻഎ; രക്തഗ്രൂപ്പ് 1996 ഓഗസ്റ്റ് 18. അർജന്റീനയുടെ തലസ്ഥാനമായ ബ്യൂണസ് അയേഴ്സിലെ വാണിജ്യകേന്ദ്രത്തിലുള്ള കത്തോലിക്കാ ദേവാലയം. ഞായറാഴ്ച ദിവ്യബലി അർപ്പണം നടക്കുകയാണ്. സമയം രാത്രി 7.00. ഫാ. അലക്സാൺഡ്രോ പെസെറ്റാണ് കാർമികൻ. ദിവ്യകാരുണ്യം കൊടുത്തശേഷം അൾത്താരയിലേക്കു മടങ്ങാനൊരുങ്ങുകയായിരുന്നു അദ്ദേഹം. അപ്പോഴാണ് പിൻനിരയിൽനിന്നൊരു സ്ത്രീ ഓടിക്കിതച്ചെത്തിയത്. ദേവാലയത്തിനു പിന്നിലുള്ള തിരിക്കാലുകളിലൊന്നിൽ ആരോ വലിച്ചെറിഞ്ഞുകളഞ്ഞ ഒരു തിരുവോസ്തി കിടക്കുന്നുണ്ടത്രേ. ദിവ്യകാരുണ്യം സ്വീകരിച്ചയുടൻ ആരെങ്കിലും തുപ്പിക്കളഞ്ഞതാവാം. വിവരം അറിഞ്ഞയുടൻ ഫാ. അലക്സാൺഡ്രോ ദേവാലയത്തിന്റെ പിൻനിരയിലെത്തി. സംഗതി വാസ്തവം. ഇത്തരത്തിൽ കണ്ടെത്തുന്ന തിരുവോസ്തി വൈദികർ ഭക്ഷിക്കാറില്ല. കൂദാശ ചെയ്യപ്പെട്ട തിരുവോസ്തി ഭക്ഷിക്കാനാവാത്തവിധം കേടാവുകയോ നിലത്തുവീണ് അഴുക്കുപുരളുകയോ ചെയ്താൽ സഭയിലുടനീളം അനുവർത്തിക്കുന്ന ഒരു പതിവുണ്ട്. ആ തിരുവോസ്തി വെള്ളത്തിൽ ഇട്ട് ലയിപ്പിക്കുക. ഇത്തരത്തിൽ തിരുവോസ്തി അലിഞ്ഞുചേർന്ന വെള്ളം മറ്റാരും ചവിട്ടികടന്നുപോകാത്ത ഒരിടത്ത് ഒഴുക്കിക്കളയുക. ഓവ് ചാലുകളിലേക്കു തുറക്കാതെ നേരെ ഭൂമിയിലേക്ക് പതിക്കത്തക്കവണ്ണം വെള്ളം ഒഴുകാനാകാവുംവിധം ഒരു സിങ്ക് ഓരോ ദേവാലയത്തിന്റെയും അൾത്താരയ്ക്ക് സമീപം ഇങ്ങനെ ക്രമീകരിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ടാകും. അതിനുവേണ്ടി അദ്ദേഹം ഈ തിരുവോസ്തി വെള്ളത്തിലിട്ട് സുരക്ഷിതസ്ഥാനത്തു സൂക്ഷിച്ചുവെച്ചു. ഓഗസ്റ്റ് 26, തിങ്കളാഴ്ച. തിരുവോസ്തി വെള്ളത്തിലിട്ടു വെച്ചിട്ടിപ്പോൾ ഒരാഴ്ച കഴിഞ്ഞിരിക്കുന്നു. ലയിച്ചു തീർന്നോയെന്നറിയാൻ ഫാ. അലക്സാൺഡ്രോ സൂക്ഷിച്ചുനോക്കി. അസാധാരണം! ആ ഗോതമ്പപ്പം ഒരു ചെറുകഷണം മാംസംപോലെ രൂപാന്തരപ്പെട്ടിരിക്കുന്നു. ബ്യൂണസ് അയേഴ്സിലെ ആർച്ച്ബിഷപ്പായ ജോർജ് ബെർഗോളിയോയെ (നമ്മുടെ പുതിയ പാപ്പ ഫ്രാൻസിസ്) വിവരമറിയിച്ചു വൈദികൻ. മനുഷ്യമാംസത്തിന്റെ രൂപം കൈവരിച്ച തിരുവോസ്തിയുടെ ചിത്രങ്ങളെടുക്കാൻ ആർച്ച്ബിഷപ് ബെർഗോളിയോ നിർദേശിച്ചു. സെപ്റ്റംബർ ആറിന് വിദഗ്ധ ഫോട്ടോഗ്രാഫർ ഈ തിരുവോസ്തിയുടെ ചിത്രങ്ങൾ പകർത്തി. രൂപമാറ്റം വന്ന തിരുവോസ്തി സുരക്ഷിതമായൊരിടത്തു രഹസ്യമായി സൂക്ഷിക്കാനും നിർദേശിച്ചു അദ്ദേഹം. വളരെ ചുരുക്കം വൈദികരൊഴികെ മറ്റാരെയും ഈ സംഭവങ്ങൾ അറിയിച്ചില്ല. മൂന്നു വർഷം കഴിഞ്ഞിട്ടും തിരുവോസ്തി കേടാവുന്നില്ലെന്നു മനസ്സിലാക്കിയശേഷമാണ് ഇത് ശാസ്ത്രീയ പരീക്ഷണങ്ങൾക്കു വിധേയമാക്കാൻ ആർച്ച് ബിഷപ് തീരുമാനിച്ചത്. 1999 ഒക്ടോബർ അഞ്ച്. ആർച്ച്ബിഷപ് ചുമതലപ്പെടുത്തിയ മുതിർന്ന വൈദികരുടെ സാന്നിധ്യത്തിൽ ഡോ. റിക്കാർഡോ കാസ്റ്റനോൺ ഈ അത്ഭുത തിരുവോസ്തിയുടെ അൽപ്പഭാഗം മുറിച്ചെടുത്തു. ന്യൂയോർക്കിലെ ഏറ്റവും ആധുനികമായ ലബോറട്ടറിയിൽ ഇതു പരിശോധിപ്പിക്കാനായിരുന്നു അധികൃതരുടെ തീരുമാനം. തിരുവോസ്തിയുടെ ഭാഗമാണ് ഇതെന്ന കാര്യം ലബോറട്ടറിയിലെ ശാസ്ത്രജ്ഞരെ തൽക്കാലം അറിയിക്കേണ്ടെന്നും നിശ്ചയിച്ചിരുന്നു. ഡോ. ഫ്രെഡെറിക് സുഗിബെ ആയിരുന്നു പഠനസംഘത്തിലൊരാൾ. സുദീർഘമായ നിരീക്ഷണങ്ങൾക്കും പഠനങ്ങൾക്കും ശേഷം അദ്ദേഹം വിധിയെഴുതി: ‘ശരിക്കും മനുഷ്യമാംസവും രക്തവുമാണ് ഞങ്ങൾ പരിശോധിച്ച വസ്തു. മനുഷ്യന്റെ ഡിഎൻഎ യാണ് ഇതിലുണ്ടായിരുന്നത്. മനുഷ്യഹൃദയത്തിലെ ഇടതു വെൻട്രിക്കിളിൽ വാൽവിനടുത്തുള്ള കോശങ്ങളിലൊന്നാണിത്. ഹൃദയസ്പന്ദനത്തെ നിയന്ത്രിക്കുന്നതാണ് ഈ പേശി. ശരീരത്തിന്റെ എല്ലാ ഭാഗത്തേക്കും രക്തം പമ്പുചെയ്യുന്നത് ഇടതു വെൻട്രിക്കിളിൽ നിന്നാണ്. ഹൃദയപേശിയിൽ ഒട്ടനവധി വെളുത്ത രക്താണുക്കളുണ്ടാവും. ഈ സാംപിൾ എടുക്കുന്ന സമയവും ഈ ഹൃദയത്തിനു ജീവനുണ്ടായിരുന്നു എന്നാണ് വെളുത്ത രക്താണുക്കളുടെ സജീവസാന്നിധ്യം തെളിയിക്കുന്നത്. ഒരുപാടു വേദനയും സമ്മർദവും അനുഭവിക്കുന്ന ഒരാളുടെ ഹൃദയപേശിയാണിത്.’ഗവേഷണഫലം കണ്ട ഡോ. റിക്കാർഡോ കാസ്റ്റനോൺ അസ്തപ്രജ്ഞനായി നിന്നുപോയി! ഈ സാമ്പിളിലെ രക്തത്തിന്റെ ഗ്രൂപ്പ് എ.ബി. ആണെന്നും പഠനം തെളിയിച്ചു. ഓസ്ട്രേലിയൻ പത്രപ്രവർത്തകനായ മൈക്ക് വില്ലെസിയും അഭിഭാഷകനായ റോൺ ടെസോറീറോയും പരീക്ഷണ വേളകളിൽ സന്നിഹിതരായിരുന്നു. മനുഷ്യശരീരത്തിൽനിന്നെടുക്കുന്ന ഒരു കോശത്തിൽ വെളുത്ത രക്താണുക്കൾ എത്രകാലം സജീവമായിരിക്കുമെന്നു ഡോ. സുഗീബെയോടു മൈക്ക് വില്ലെസി തിരക്കി. ഏതാനും നിമിഷങ്ങൾക്കുള്ളിൽ അവ നശിച്ചുപോകുമെന്നായിരുന്നു ഡോ. സുഗിബെയുടെ മറുപടി. ഈ സാമ്പിൾ സാധാരണജലത്തിൽ ഒരു മാസവും ഡിസ്റ്റിൽഡ് ജലത്തിൽ മൂന്നുവർഷവും സൂക്ഷിച്ചിരുന്നതാണെന്ന് അപ്പോൾ മാത്രമാണ് മൈക്ക് വെളിപ്പെടുത്തിയത്. മാത്രമല്ല, കൂദാശചെയ്യപ്പെട്ട ഒരു തിരുവോസ്തിയുടെ ഭാഗമാണിതെന്നും മൈക്ക് വെളിപ്പെടുത്തി. ശാസ്ത്രീയമായി അത് അസാധ്യമാണെന്നായിരുന്നു ഡോക്ടറുടെ മറുപടി: ശാസ്ത്രത്തിനു വിശദീകരിക്കാനാവാത്ത അത്ഭുതമാണിത്.’കത്തോലിക്കാസഭയിലെ അത്ഭുതങ്ങളുടെ ‘പൊള്ളത്തരം’ പൊളിക്കുക എന്ന ഏകലക്ഷ്യവുമായി പരീക്ഷണങ്ങളിൽ മുഴുകിയ ഡോ. റിക്കാർഡോ കാസ്റ്റനോൺ പിന്നെ തന്റെ ജീവിതലക്ഷ്യവും മാറ്റി: താൻ തിരിച്ചറിഞ്ഞ സത്യം ലോകത്തോടു വിളിച്ചുപറയുക.
Pope Francis A Witness To A Eucharistic Miracle!
In 1996 in the Archdiocese of Buenos Aires, Argentina, when the present Pope Francis was Auxiliary Bishop under Cardinal Quarracino, an amazing Eucharistic miracle took place. He himself had it photographed and investigated and the results are astonishing. At seven o’clock in the evening on August 18, 1996, Fr. Alejandro Pezet was saying Holy Mass at a Catholic church in the commercial center of Buenos Aires. As he was finishing distributing Holy Communion, a woman came up to tell him that she had found a discarded host on a candle holder at the back of the church. On going to the spot indicated, Fr. Alejandro saw the defiled Host. Since he was unable to consume it, he placed it in a container of water and put it away in the tabernacle of the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament.
On Monday, August 26, upon opening the tabernacle, he saw to his amazement that the Host had turned into a bloody substance. He informed Bishop Jorge Bergoglio(Now Pope Francis, Auxillary Bishop that time), who gave instructions that the Host be professionally photographed. The photos were taken on September 6. They clearly show that the Host, which had become a fragment of bloodied flesh, had grown significantly in size. For several years the Host remained in the tabernacle, the whole affair being kept a strict secret. Since the Host suffered no visible decomposition, Cardinal Bergoglio(Who became Archbishop by that time) decided to have it scientifically analyzed.
On October 5, 1999, in the presence of the Cardinal’s representatives, Dr. Castanon took a sample of the bloody fragment and sent it to New York for analysis. Since he did not wish to prejudice the study, he purposely did not inform the team of scientists of its provenance(the source of sample was kept secret to the scientists). One of these scientists was Dr. Frederic Zugiba, the well-known cardiologist and forensic pathologist. He determined that the analyzed substance was real flesh and blood containing human DNA. Zugiba testified that, “the analyzed material is a fragment of the heart muscle found in the wall of the left ventricle close to the valves. This muscle is responsible for the contraction of the heart. It should be borne in mind that the left cardiac ventricle pumps blood to all parts of the body. The heart muscle is in an inflammatory condition and contains a large number of white blood cells. This indicates that the heart was alive at the time the sample was taken. It is my contention that the heart was alive, since white blood cells die outside a living organism. They require a living organism to sustain them. Thus, their presence indicates that the heart was alive when the sample was taken. What is more, these white blood cells had penetrated the tissue, which further indicates that the heart had been under severe stress, as if the owner had been beaten severely about the chest.”